Posts written by Neil Bernardi, Duckhorn Wine Company's Vice President of Winemaking and many special guest bloggers. This collection of insights on winemaking, farming, entertaining and more is a great way to learn about the excitement of winery life and tips for enjoying the wines we produce.
While winemaking is a blend of art and science, it is the production of sparkling wine, or bubbles, that is perhaps most challenging to master. There are so many elements to sparkling wine that make it unique within the winemaking world it comes complete with its own vocabulary: dosage, tirage, remuage, disgorgement. In this post we'll explore many fun facts you never knew about sparkling wine.
It was the 17th century when Pierre Perignon first explored actively trapping the gas of fermentation in wine to create effervescence.
“Come quickly, I’m tasting the stars”, he cried.
His dedication led to the development of both stronger glass to contain the pressure, and the use of tighter corks to keep the bubbles intact. Thanks, Dom! Over 100 years later, in the 1800’s, Madame Clicquot (yes, the Widow, or Veuve) developed the practice of remuage (riddling) to remove the yeasty sediment left over from the second fermentation. By meticulously turning the bottles at an inverted angle, the yeasty sludge works its way into the slim neck of the bottle, for removal aka degorgemont (disgorgement). Once you remove the cap and aforementioned sludge, the bottle is sealed with a tightly secured cork and muselet (muzzle, the charming wire cage) to keep the contents intact. It is after these innovations that sparkling wine took its place as the most elegant of beverages.
Perhaps one of the most fascinating elements of sparkling winemaking is the ability to anticipate what the future will bring. For assemblage (blending wines) of the base wines, the winemaker must predict what the wines will taste like with the addition of the dosage (the sugared liqueur addition that causes the 2nd fermentation in the bottle) and bottle aging before the wines are released. This decision happens typically 3-4 years before the wine is available for purchase, while the bottle is en tirage (state of aging).
Any grape can be used to make sparkling wine, but traditional grapes include Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, and the lesser known Pinot Meunier. Any grape can be used to make sparkling wine, but traditional grapes include Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, and the lesser known Pinot Meunier. The beautiful pink hue will come, as with still rose production, from limited skin contact with red grapes. The more complex, and daring, way to achieve the color of choice is by blending in a small portion of still red wine into a white wine base. Truly a task for a highly skilled winemaker.
Our own gorgeous and newly released 2015 Goldeneye Brut Rosé displays a pink hue and consists of 72% Pinot Noir and 28% Chardonnay, a modern classic indeed!
Every bottle of wine has a story to tell, and that story begins in the vineyard. With each vintage, the unique interaction between terroir, climate, and weather dictate the narrative of each bottle. So, in this blog we will examine the lifecycle of the grape vine, the ultimate wine author.
Come spring the vines reawaken from dormancy. From March to April the vines experience bud burst. From these buds, green leaves burst awake in preparation for photosynthesis with the warmer months. Bud break is a delicate time, as the new growth is in danger of spring frost and hail storms.
As bud break turns into vegetative growth, the next process of the grape vine begins from April to May. Flowering is when bunches of tiny flowers bloom from the new vine shoots. Grape vines are self-pollinating, so each of these flowers has the potential to turn into a single berry.
As the summer months set in, the pollinated flower drops its petals and tiny green grape berry clusters with seeds develop at the end of the stem. Although, not every flower is fertilized into a berry, so it simply falls off the vine. The fruit set stage of the grape vine is critical, as it becomes the initial indicator of the potential crop yield in harvest.
Come mid-summer, the green berry clusters begin to expose their color pigmentation. Verasion is the process in which the berry clusters begin ripening and turning purple or blueish in color. The heat of summer induces sugar development and ripening in each grape, while the cool evenings (depending on growing region) preserve natural acidity and freshness.
From September to November, for winemakers, viticulturists and wine country visitors, this is the most exciting time of the wine growing season! There is a palpable buzz and energy as winemakers’ taste, test, and measure brix, or sugar content, and determine when the grapes are ready to be picked. Harvest is when the grapes have reached optimal ripeness and are ready to tell the story of the vintage.
After the seasons fruit has been collected during harvest, all fall leaf foliage falls to the soils and the vines go dormant. During this time, viticulturists are diligently pruning each vine in an effort to guide vine growth for next season. After four months of rest, the grape vine repeats this process effectively growing and telling the story of another season.
Harvest is the best season to visit wine country! The vines are lush with green foliage and plush purple grape clusters create the most picturesque visit. Our annual Paraduxx X2 Release Harvest Party commences on Saturday, September 29th, so come join us in uncorking the new Paraduxx releases and participate in the harvest activities with a grape stomping competition!
Uncorking a large-format wine bottle is exciting and ceremonious! These bottles are rare in comparison to the standardized 750ml bottles, and they make for a practical investment. Large-format bottles are perfect for your cellar as they age more gracefully and make for impressive centerpieces during special gatherings. In this blog we are going to explore the evolution and benefits of large format wine bottles.
The Evolution of Wine bottles
It is believed that the ancient Romans, used glass blowing to create wine bottles. Yet, this glass was too delicate to store the wine, so they used amphoras, large clay pots, for wine transport and storage. The glass bottles they created were typically used as a decanter for dinners. In the 1700’s, coal-burning furnaces allowed for higher heat and allowed glass blowers to create thicker and darker glass. The production of the cork closure came shortly after and with that changes in wine bottle shape and size began to take form. It was discovered that the larger the bottle, the slower and more gracefully it ages. In, 1979, the United States deemed the 750ml the standardized wine bottle size, and the European Union followed suit, in order to ease trade.
Collecting Large-Formats for your Cellar
Large-format wine bottles make the perfect addition to your cellar due to their age-ability. The aging and oxidation process in a large-format bottle occurs more slowly, than the standardized 750ml, creating a wine with an enhanced flavor profile. With age the tannins soften, and the wine begins to express secondary and tertiary aromas creating a more complex wine.
So, the larger the bottle, the more age-ability. This is because the ullage, or oxygen sealed in each bottle of wine is the same despite differing bottle sizes. With larger formats, there is a larger volume of liquid interacting with that oxygen. In addition, large-formats are more resistant to drastic temperature variations and light damage due to the higher volume of liquid. For those interested in making practical wine investments, large-format bottles are your best option for cellaring and aging.
Celebrating with a Large-Format
Social gatherings are the perfect occasion for uncorking a large-format! Whether it’s for a holiday dinner, a family get-together, wedding or graduation, a large-format is sure to impress. Opening large-formats can take a little practice. So, we assembled a few suggestions:
- Carefully, cut the wax off a large-format same as you would on a standard bottle with foil. Your cork screw knife should work great or even a serrated knife. Peel away the wax and be careful not to get any in the bottle.
- If you are opening an older vintage wine, the ah-so wine opener is perfect solution. Vintage corks are delicate and the last thing you want is to destroy your large-formats cork. We suggest adding a neutral oil to the prongs to easily glide into the bottle neck and be cautious not to push the cork in. Simply twist and pull to cleanly extract the cork.
- Once, you have uncorked your large-format, wipe away any sediment in the neck and decant your wine. Pouring from a large-format can be cumbersome, so the decanter is great way to ceremoniously present the wine while allowing the sediment to sit in the bottle and not your glass while at-the-same-time aerating the wine.
Within the Duckhorn Portfolio, we offer a selection of magnums and double-magnums for your next celebration or cellar. Shop online here and enjoy!
It is officially summer and time to head outside for your dose of Vitamin D! When the Events Team is not busy dreaming up the next Duckhorn Wine Company event, we are crafting our own al fresco adventures. Follow these three easy steps below to picnic like a pro.
With the busy work week weighing on many of us, it can seem daunting to put together a well-organized weekend picnic. Lessen your stress, and put together a picnic-edition “bug-out” bag before the summer season starts. Keep a check-list of items included in your basket, use and replenish when you’re ready to hit the road again.
Summer Picnic Bug-Out Bag Essentials:
- For service: reusable dinnerware, including plates, utensils and stemless wine glasses; corkscrew, cheese board and an all-purpose knife
- Protect against the elements: blankets, clothing to keep warm, sunscreen and bug spray
- Clean-up duty: wine stain remover, trash bags, napkins and wet wipes
The time is now to enjoy your summer sippers! Pack the right wines and serve at the right temperatures to pair perfectly with your al fresco provisions. Our favorite picnic pairings include Duckhorn Vineyards Napa Valley Sauvignon Blanc, Paraduxx Napa Valley Rosé and Goldeneye Anderson Valley Pinot Noir.
Traveling Beverage Hack:
- Partially or completely freeze non-alcoholic beverages to use as ice-packs to keep wine and food at the perfect temperature during transit
Avoid the charcoal smudges and sandy-sandwiches, prep all foods in advance to be enjoyed at ambient temperature. With less on-site prep work, hosts can make the most of their weekend adventures too.
- Accommodate for all: Prepare for any pop-up dietary needs, packing at least one gluten free dish, one vegetarian dish and one non-dairy dish
- Noshing: cheese wedges and crudité with dips keep a crowd coming back for more
- Keep it light: opt for fresh, seasonal ingredients, keeping friends energetic for that summer frisbee match
- Dressing on the side: store dressing in a shakeable jar and toss just before service to keep green and pasta salads fresh
Ready to let someone else do the heavy lifting? The Duckhorn Events Team extraordinaire is ready to host your next wine country experience. Learn more about planning your next weekend adventure with our team.
Forty years ago, Dan and Margaret Duckhorn along with their winemaker had a passionate discussion at the dinner table about making a cuvée, or the finest red blend. Instead, they chose to focus on varietal wines, yet Duckhorn Vineyards had remained intrigued by the artful blend of a cuvée. In 2006, that dinner discussion from 30 years ago came to fruition; Duckhorn Vineyards released their first cuvée or pinnacle wine aptly named, The Discussion.
Today, within the Duckhorn Portfolio, there are four Pinnacle wine offerings from four of our seven wineries, Duckhorn Vineyards, Paraduxx, Goldeneye and Canvasback. These wines are 100% estate grown and celebrate our best blocks from our top estate vineyards.
Our four pinnacle wines are distinctly different and capture the essence of each winery and region. The Discussion from Duckhorn Vineyards is classic and elegant embodying the best of Napa Valley Bordeaux varietals. Paraduxx X2 stylishly blends mountain fruit and valley floor fruit, beautifully demonstrating the subtle art of the blend. Our pinnacle Pinot Noir, Ten Degrees, from Goldeneye is complex, earthy and rustic, perfectly capturing the natural intensity of Anderson Valley. The Grand Passage is concentrated and complex, beautifully embodying the desert-like climate of Red Mountain in Washington State. All four of these wines are ready to drink now and ideal for aging in your cellar for 10 to 15 years.
Duckhorn Vineyards The Discussion
The Discussion commemorates a longstanding dream of Dan and Margaret Duckhorn’s. The primary blend is always Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, representing our belief in the timeless union of these two noble Bordeaux varietals. The Discussion embodies the depth and complexity of Duckhorn Vineyards renowned estate program, resulting in an elegant wine with pure fruit flavors combined with silky tannins and savory notes.
92 Points - Wine & Spirits
X2 is crafted as an exponential expression and harmonization of our Paraduxx style and the pinnacle of our portfolio. Paraduxx X2 is a blend of our best blocks and barrels selected from our finest estate grown Cabernet Sauvignon and Zinfandel producing a wine that balances depth and structure of mountain grapes with the lush vibrancy of valley floor fruit.
Goldeneye Ten Degrees
Made from our ten finest barrels of Pinot Noir, we name this special wine Ten Degrees – a name that pays homage to the fact that our three estate vineyards in Anderson Valley display as much as a 10 degree temperature variance, while spanning only an eight-mile distance. As the pinnacle wine of our portfolio, Ten Degrees combines our best estate vineyard grapes and showcases the elegance, beauty and rustic characteristics of the Anderson Valley.
94 Points - Wine Enthusiast
Canvasback Grand Passage
With access to some of the best vineyards in Red Mountain, Canvasback was able to craft Grand Passage, the pinnacle of our winemaking program. The Grand Passage is 80% Cabernet Sauvignon and 20% Merlot, it embodies the finest blocks and barrels of each vintage to create a beautifully layered wine with ripe voluminous dark fruits rounded with notes of mocha and salted caramel and polished tannins. This is a Cabernet lovers’ prefect wine!
93 Points - Wine & Spirits
Sometimes a standard gift bag just doesn't cut it. If you're feeling creative and want to go the extra mile when styling your wine gift, here's a fun option for the crafty at heart.
Make a Bedazzled Wine Bottle:
- With a foam brush, cover your bottle of Goldeneye Sparkling Wine with craft glue. Be extra careful around the label.
- Next, using extra fine glitter in your favorite color, sprinkle gently over the glue.
- Let the first layer dry for about an hour, then repeat until you're pleased with the coverage.
- To seal the glitter, add a layer of watered down craft glue and set aside to fully dry.
- Enjoy your beautiful bottle!
Whether this lovely bottle is a gift for someone special or something just for you, it's guaranteed to be a hit both before and after you open it.
Each harvest season is a blank canvas and the winemaker is given the opportunity to paint the perfect vintage! As Decoy begins its twenty-second harvest, I sat down with Winemaker Tyson Wolf to discuss the 2017 vintage.
With the heavy rains this year, the question on everyone’s mind is how is the vintage looking? Our winemaker says the grapes are superb, with his first pick being of Sauvignon Blanc from the Alexander Valley. Fortunately, August has seen consistently warm weather which is balancing out the moisture brought on by California’s out-of-character rainy season. The excitement of Harvest is visible throughout Sonoma wine country!
Harvest is a culmination of the year’s climate and local geology, bearing fruit that is evocative of a place. According to Tyson, Harvest is the most important part of the winemaking process, setting a tone for the entire year of winemaking. It all starts with picking the grapes! Knowing when to pick each block of grapes is a skill. For Tyson, grape picking involves an analysis of not just the grapes chemistry but also of its flavor profile as well as an evaluation of how the flavor will continue to develop. It involves having the foresight to taste a single grape and understand how that grape will translate to the finished product, in the bottle!
Tyson's personal challenge every year is to make each vintage better. He and his team frequently taste the past two vintages and decide how to tweak the wines to achieve the ideal translation of the given varietal. For instance, Tyson is most excited to play with the second vintage of Decoy Rosé and add more Syrah to create a brighter, crisp Rosé with exotic fruit notes. From the picking of the grape, to the blend and barrel regime, winemaking most certainly is a labor of love.
Decoy wines aim to translate a sense of place, transporting the wine taster to Sonoma County and imparting a tasting experience that is much more than just the fruit, oak, and spice. Tyson says part of the fun of growing and making wines in Sonoma County is the diversity of climates. The Pacific Ocean offers a marine influence with cool coastal winds and morning fog while another microclimate exists that is warm, dry and mountainous. Sonoma County is unique in that it is able to communicate a variety of terroirs!
Cheers to the 2017 vintage and to a successful Harvest!
For as long as humans have depended on agriculture for survival we have organized our customs, mythologies, and calendars around the harvest cycle. The tales of Demeter and Persephone, Selu the Cherokee Corn Mother, the Roman Ceres, and the Norse Freyr speak to us of people whose very lives depended on the beneficence of mother nature and bountiful harvests. Every culture in every part of the world has some sort of harvest celebration thanking divine nature for the gifts of the earth. We at Duckhorn Vineyards christen each new harvest with an annual blessing of the grapes. On the first day of picking as many people as possible flock to the crush pad to taste the grapes, share Goldeneye sparkling wine, and eat donut holes. This simple toast marks the thankful end of another growing season and the beginning of a 3-month slog of long harvest days. Harvest culminates in a party where we celebrate the successful (hopefully) and bountiful crop of new wines by eating tacos, drinking ice cold Modelo, and maybe riding a mechanical bull. Check out some of the fascinating ways other cultures celebrate harvest, though sadly without donut holes or Modelo.
- Rice Harvest, Bali Indonesia Dewi Sri, the rice goddess, is venerated in Bali, where rice is the staple crop. During the harvest, villages are festooned with flags, and simple bamboo temples dedicated to the goddess are erected in the upstream, most sacred corners of the rice fields. Small dolls of rice stalks representing Dewi Sri are placed in granaries as offerings.
- Chanthaburi Fruit Fair, Thailand Chanthaburi is known for its profusion of beautiful native fruits. During the summer harvest, the annual Fruit Fair exhibits exotic durians, rambutans, longans, and mangosteens in vibrant arrangements. There are produce competitions and art displays, and the opening-day parade features floats made from thousands of tropical fruits and vegetables.
- Madeira Flower Festival, Portugal Funchal’s April flower festival marks the arrival of spring. Each of the island’s children brings a flower to create the colorful Muro da Esperança (Wall of Hope), and intricate flower carpets line the streets.
- Incwala, Swaziland In late December, branches from the sacred lusekwane tree are woven into a bower for the king, and only when he eats the first fruit can his people partake of the harvest.
- Olivagando, Magione, Italy Magione’s two-day festival in November celebrates both the feast day of St. Clement and the local olive harvest, bringing together everyone involved in the production of olive oil. A priest blesses the new oil at a special Mass, and the town hosts a lavish medieval dinner at its 12th-century castle.
It is hard to believe another year has passed and that we stand on the precipice of another harvest. I probably say this every year, but where has the time gone? It seems like only yesterday we were putting the finishing touches on the wonderful 2016 vintage, now soundly ensconced in bottles or barrels. The 2017 season started off much differently than the last 3 years, with a deluge of rain. Most areas received significant precipitation, filling up reservoirs, creeks, and the soil profiles of our beautiful estate vineyards. This boost of available water, while desperately needed, has changed the nature of our Estate Viticulture team’s challenge this growing season. Higher water availability allows the very fastidious and efficient grape vine to focus additional energy on vegetative growth. The added leaves, shoots, and laterals make extra vineyard passes a necessity to allow for appropriate shoot selection, leafing, and suckering to prevent shading and ensure the proper balance of fruit to canopy. The additional photosynthetic machinery can also be a problem later in the season, driving excessive transpiration and sugar production, along with the potential for higher methoxypyrazine production (the chemical responsible for bell pepper taste in Bordeaux varietals). Needless to say, our Estate Team has met the challenge head on and the Estate vineyards have never looked better. We have started our grape analysis, and all indications are that harvest will start in earnest sometime late next week, or early the week after with Sauvignon Blanc or Semillon for Duckhorn Vineyards. More to come in the days and weeks ahead!
Our last day is in the beautiful town of Arles, home of the famous Van Gogh. Many might think that Paris is the largest city in France, but it is only by population, Arles is actually the largest city by area. One important note of this day that no picture could capture are the "mistrals". We woke up to essentially gale force winds that almost carried us away. These crazy winds (or mistrals) blow 250 days a year and start from the north in Lyon and move through southern Rhone. Local legend has it that if you commit murder of your husband or wife on days with heavy mistrals, you don't get prosecuted because they literally make you crazy. These "mistrals" also play an important role in regional wine and impact the overall terroir of the Rhone Valley.
It has truly been an amazing journey and we have made so many new friends along the way. Thank you to Alex Ryan, President and CEO, Renee Ary, Duckhorn Vineyards Winemaker, and David Crum, Director of Membership & Customer Service for hosting and bringing the best of new world wines to these ancient winemaking regions. Thank you to the Uniworld Team of the SS. Catherine, the food and service were spectacular. And a very special thank you to our fellow Rhone Quack Packers, for sharing this memorable journey with us. #rhonequackpack
Hope to see you all on our next adventure!
Sasha & Jim